In September 2003, marking 30 years since the coup against Allende, the Socialist Party issued a document accepting responsibility for the events: It is beyond all doubt that President Allende maintained an unchanging and impeccable attitude (...) Nevertheless, the socialists have made it clear, and we repeat it now, that we did not do enough to defend the democratic regime. He was four times candidate for the Presidency—unsuccessfully in 1952, 1958, 1964, and finally successfully in 1970. The party now officially adhered to Marxism-Leninism, declared itself in favour of revolutionary, anticapitalist and anti-imperialist changes.[13]. By the time Marxist Salvador Allende became President of Chile in 1970, the political parties of the Right had been in a state of both chaos and remission for decades. Allende then graduated with a medical degree in 1926 at the University of Chile.. The family had a long political history. Described as a "social contract", her government reformed pensions and the social security system, aiming to help thousands of Chileans to improve their quality of life. A right-wing authoritarian military dictatorship ruled Chile for seventeen years, between September 11, 1973 and March 11, 1990. Prominent figures including Jorge Arrate, senator Alejandro Navarro and deputy Marco Enriquez-Ominami quit the party in 2008 and 2009. Salvador Allende was a politician who co-founded Chile's Socialist Party and ran for the Chilean presidency several times before winning the 1970 election. They achieved successful results in the 5 October 1988, Plebiscite, where close to 56% of the valid votes cast rejected the idea that Pinochet would continue as the President of the Republic. The overwhelming triumph of Eduardo Frei Montalva over the candidate of the FRAP Salvador Allende Gossens in the presidential elections of September 1964 caused demoralization among the followers of the "Chilean way to socialism". Its historic leader was President of Chile Salvador Allende, who was deposed in a coup d'état by General Pinochet in 1973. Ars Quatuor Coronatorum (xciv pp. [citation needed], In September 1986, the politico-military method of "mass violent insurrectionist uprisings" was finally aborted after the failure of "Operation 20th century", as the assassination attempt on Pinochet by the FPMR was called. Allende was elected with 36% of the popular vote in 1970. In June 1989, the Concertación appointed the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin as its standard bearer for the presidential elections. Background. In the IX Congress of the PS of the year 1943 Salvador Allende displaced Marmaduque Grove as Secretary General and withdrew his party from the government of Ríos. The discrepancies of the party were perceived clearly. In 1933, he published his doctoral thesis Higiene Mental y Delincuencia (Crime and Mental Hygiene) in which he criticized Cesare Lombroso's proposals. Aylwin had beaten Gabriel Valdés and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle in the party's internal elections, and a few weeks before the election he received the support of the radicals of Silva Cimma and even of the former Almeyda supporters (PS-Almeyda). He was the first democratically elected socialist leader in Latin America. The Socialist Party, which had posted its highest electoral showing in history, was opposed, along with MAPU, to any dialogue with the right-wing opposition. Socialist thought in Chile goes back to the mid-19th century, when Francisco Bilbao and Santiago Arcos opened a debate on civil rights and social equality in Chile. Salvador Allende, the President of Chile, a country in South America, delivered a speech on 11 September 1973, shortly before he embraced his death. ... Salvador Allende. He then led the country into an era of … This proposal by the democratic opposition was partly accepted by the authoritarian government via the 30 July 1989, Plebiscite, where 54 reforms to the existing Constitution were approved. She was the candidate of Nueva Mayoría ("New Majority"), a broadened version of the Concertación now including the Communist Party and others.[25]. (Redirected from Salvador Allende Gossens This article uses Spanish naming customs : the first or paternal family name is Allende and the second or maternal family name is Gossens . He won 48.0% in the first round of voting and was elected with 51.3% in the second round. He qualified as a medical doctor in 1932 but from his student days he was also active in politics, helping to found ChileÕs Socialist Party in the same year as his graduation. Her initially high popularity dropped considerably as a result of the 2006 student mobilization known as the "Penguin Revolution", the Transantiago crisis, and various conflicts within the governing coalition. The XXIV ("renewed") Socialist Party Congress, directed by Ricardo Ñúnez, decided to form the Democratic Alliance. The left (PS-PPD) backed Ricardo Lagos as the Concertación candidate for the 1993 presidential elections, but he was defeated by the Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, gaining only 36.6% of the vote in the primary on 23 May. Gen. Augusto Pinochet, Following severe inflation and food shortages Allende's popularity started to dip. He co-founded the section of the Socialist Party of Chile (founded in 1933 with Marmaduque Grove and others) in Valparaíso and became its chairman. The quote chosen for this mural was from a speech by the iconic Chilean president Salvador Allende: “Since my youth I have fought against prejudice and obsolete political systems. Twenty-seven years later, Ricardo Lagos Escobar represented the Socialist Party in the 1999 presidential elections. The mass struggles of Chilean students and youth have been accompanied by the promotion of political illusions in the Popular Unity government of Salvador Allende. Only the banks resisted the UP’s attempts to nationalize them. However, recent research suggests that the [Lautaro] Lodge was founded in Cadix, Spain." Name the party founded by Salvador Allende in Chile? Aylwin won easily in the presidential elections of 1989, gaining more than the 55% of the valid votes. Within the Party, divisions widened, with dissident factions opposing the policy of Camilo Escalona. This included mining of copper, nitrate, iodine, iron, and coal; the country's financial system, especially private banks and insurance companies; foreign trade; production and distribution of electricity; air, rail, and maritime transportation; all petroleum based goods; iron, steel, cement, and paper. He became the first socialist to ascend to the presidency. They aimed, in conjunction with the Christian Democracy, to end dictatorship through "non-disruptive methods". Within a few weeks of the coup, four members of their Central Committee and seven regional secretaries of the Partido Social had been murdered. The fall of the wall of Berlin, on 9 November 1989, deeply affected the Chilean left, especially in its more orthodox sector. After election to the Chamber of Deputies in 1937, he served (1939–42) as minister of health in the liberal leftist coalition of President Pedro Aguirre Cerda. It was from the beginning a party which stated in its program its commitment to Marxism: “The Party adheres to Marxism as the method for interpreting reality … Political action projects supported selected parties before and after the 1964 elections and after Allende’s 1970 election. Between 22 and 25 November 1990 the "Salvador Allende Unity Congress" was held, with past leaders such as Raúl Ampuero and Aniceto Rodriguez and the Christian Left headed by its president Luis Maira and its two representatives (Sergio Aguiló and Jaime Naranjo) joining the party. Allende won the first of his four elections to the Senate in 1945. [15], In April 1987, Ricardo Núñez, new leader of the "renewed" Partido Social, announced, at the 54th Anniversary of the party, "We are not going to remove Pinochet from the political scene using weapons. Salvador Allende was a Chile physician and a politician. The Socialist Party will support their revolutionary goals in economics and politics across Latin America in order to pursue a vision of a Confederacy of the Socialist Republics of the Continent, the first step toward the World Socialist Confederation. After the parliamentary elections of 1953; where the Socialist Popular Party obtained 5 senators and 19 representatives, the popular socialists abandoned the government of Carlos Ibáñez del Campo and proclaimed the need to establish a Front of Workers, in conjunction with the Democratic Party of the People, the socialists of Chile and the outlawed communists. In contrast with Fidel Castro's people's revolution from below, Allende proposed a peaceful transition to socialism through existing governmental structures: a revolution from above. In the 2013 presidential election, she was elected again and took office in 2014. 1936 saw the formation in Chile—as in France and Spain—of the Popular Front, a Center-Left coalition that united the Radicals, Socialists and Communists, along with smaller reformist and populist parties. Chile’s CUT trade union federation publicized the fact that, at the time of his death on September 11, 1973, President Salvador Allende was on the verge of … Grove did not accept this situation, and was expelled from the PS and formed the Authentic Socialist Party. This led to a massive movement to seize land. Generally, the Communist Party, the Radical Party and later MAPU/OC advocated more cautious policies, whereas a part of the Socialist Party supported more radical changes and were often supported by MAPU and Christian Left.[1][2]. [24][self-published source? 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Allende had a close relationship with the Chilean Communist Party from the beginning of his political career. In 1934 the Socialists, along with the Radical-Socialist Party and the Democratic Party constituted the "Leftist Bloc". He became the first socialist to ascend to the presidency. "[citation needed], In the 1980s socialist factions reemerged as active opponents to the Pinochet government. Benjamin Villaroel, American Renaissance, December 9, 2019. In the parliamentary elections of December 1997, the PS did badly: its deputies decreased from 16 to 11, and its senators from 5 to 4. The reform policies rarely addressed the small land holders, turning them against the Allende. After the failure of the candidacy of Ibáñez (who obtained barely a 2.5% of the votes), the purges continued. The Socialist foreign affairs ministers José Miguel Insulza and Juan Gabriel Valdés pressed to have the ex-dictator returned to Chile, while a group of leading Socialists including Isabel Allende Bussi, Juan Pablo Letelier, Fanny Pollarolo and Juan Bustos Ramírez travelled to London to support judge Baltasar Garzón's proceedings for extradition to Spain. [citation needed] The other sector (majority from among the socialist militants in the interior of the country) formed the "popular rebellion" alliance - an agreement with the Communist Party, the Leftist Revolutionary Movement and the Radical Party of Anselmo Sule. The secret services of the military state managed to infiltrate the organization and, one by one, arrested its principal leaders. General Pinochet seized power on Sept. 11, 1973, in a bloody military coup that toppled the Marxist government of President Salvador Allende. The Christian Democratic Party, a centrist reform party founded in 1957, enjoyed the biggest increase—from 9 percent in 1957 to 15 percent in 1961. [16], After the October 1988 Plebiscite, the Concertación called for constitutional reform to remove the "authoritarian clauses" of the 1980 Constitution. Having reviewed the consequences of the defeat of the Unidad Popular, and observed the experiences of refugees of "true socialism" in Eastern Europe, and seeing the lack of a cohesive strategy to continue against Pinochet's regime, there was deep dissent within its exterior organization, whose central management was in the German Democratic Republic. Although short lived those involved in the experiment went on to form the leadership of the Socialist Party, founded a year later by a group that included the young Salvador Allende. Although the UP did not gain full power of the government with Allende’s election, it did gain the administrative and economic ability to limit the bourgeoisie through expropriations and strengthen the urban proletariat and peasantry. Its partisan structure exhibits some singularities, such as the creation of "brigades" that group their militants according to environment of activity; brigades that live together organically, and brigades of militant youths such as the Confederacy of the Socialist Youth, and the Confederacy of Socialist Women. Salvador Allende, the former president of Chile who served from 1970 to 1973, was the first Marxist to be democratically elected the president of a Latin American country. A series of programs, including pay equality, resulted in diminishing incentives to work, and productivity fell. Allende, born into an upper-middle-class family, received his medical degree in 1932 from the University of Chile, where he was a Marxist activist. Presidential elections in Chile are held using a two-round system, the results of which are displayed below. The loose and conditional support from the Christian Democratic Party that made this confirmation possible soon disintegrated, as did centrism of any viable kind in an atmosphere of increasing political polarization. The Socialists participated in his cabinet, alongside Radicals, members of the Democratic Party and of the Liberal Party and even of the Falange. Marxist parties "in recess to let the country catch its breath politically." His slight plurality in the election resulted in his confirmation as president by the National Congress of Chile. Finally, on 1 March 1956, the two socialist parties (Socialist Party of Chile and Socialist Popular Party), the Party of the Workers (communist outlawed), Democratic Party of the People and the Democratic Party all signed the minutes of constitution of the Front of Popular Action (FRAP) with Salvador Allende Gossens as the president of the coalition, which participated successfully in the municipal elections of April 1956. The Independent Democratic Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente, UDI) is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983.Its founder was the lawyer, politician and law professor Jaime Guzmán, a civilian who collaborated with Augusto Pinochet.Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1, 1991. The participation of the Socialist Party in the government of Aguirre Cerda reached an end on 15 December 1940, due to internal conflicts among the Popular Front coalition, in particular with the Communist Party. Allende became its first chairman. In addition to these policies, the UP promoted improved social security and public health, an improved and expanded housing sector, gender equality, and the extension of the right to organize unions. The United States, under the Nixon administration, prevented the renegotiation of national debt and placed an embargo on goods from nationalized companies. Their primary exponent was the Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (FPMR) (the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front). Question 5. At its height in 1973, the MIR numbered some 10,000 members and associates.Andrés Pascal Allende, a nephew of Salvador Allende… The objectives were the same. At its height in 1973, the MIR numbered some 10,000 members and associates.Andrés Pascal Allende, a nephew of Salvador Allende… In that Congress Jorge Arrate was chosen as president, Ricardo Núñez Muñoz as vice president and Manuel Almeyda Medina as secretary general. President Salvador Allende refused to relinquish power to the Armed Forces, and ultimately committed suicide in his office at the Palace of La Moneda, during an intensive air bombardment of the historic edifice.[14]. There was complete confusion in the Socialist Party for the presidential election of 1946. In April 1979, the Tercer Pleno Exterior, the majority sector of the party, named Clodomiro Almeyda as the new Secretary General, Galo Gómez as the Assistant Secretary and expelled Carlos Altamirano, Jorge Arrate, Jaime Suaréz, Luis Meneses and Erich Schnake from the party, charging them with being "remnants of a past which is in the process of being overcome who testify to the survival of a nucleus which is irreducible and resistant to the superior qualitative development of a true revolutionary vanguard" . Allende: First, Régis, let me remind you that the first Secretary Général of the French Communist Party was a freemason. Popular Unity had the support of the people, and this support only grew. The Chilean Socialist Party was founded in 1933 by Salvador Allende, amongst others. The Movimiento de Acción Popular Unitaria, led by Oscar Guillermo Garretón, took this chance to join the united PS. UP also initially included the moderate Party of the Radical Left, but in 1972 it joined the opposition (inside the Confederation of Democracy). Answer: Allende became the President of Chile in 1970. [5], Deepening democracy? He was a senator from 1945 until 1969 and was President of the Chilean Senate from 1966 until 1969. reports that the Lautaro Lodge was founded by José de San Martín (1778/02/25 - 1850/08/17) and Bernardo O'Higgins (1778/08/20-1842/10/24) shortly after they arrived in Santiago in 1817. Its historic leader was President of Chile Salvador Allende, who was deposed in a coup d'état by General Pinochet in 1973. In power, the socialists Enrique Correa (as the minister General Secretary of Government), Carlos Ominami (Economy), Germán Correa (Transportation), Ricardo Lagos and Jorge Arrate (Education) and Luis Alvarado (National Resources) entered the cabinets of President Aylwin, while in the House of Representatives, the socialists José Antonio Viera-Gallo and Jaime Estevéz exercised its presidency. Allende was the founder- leader of the Socialist Party of Chile and led the Popular Unity Coalition to victory in the 1970 Presidential Elections. Lack of experience working 'underground' during the ban led to the breakup of the Party's Secret Directorate. The peasants working the land keep a percentage of the profit, the rest goes to the owner. He was one of the founders of the Socialist Party of Chile and in 1938 became a minister of health. [4], The expropriation of the first company, a textile factory, was announced on December 2, 1970. Salvador Allende's election in 1970 represented several important developments internationally and domestically. In 1969, skepticism about the "Chilean way to socialism" prevailed in the Central Committee of the Socialist Party. Salvador Allende Gossens was born in 1908 and died in the coup against his government on 11 September 1973. Its senatorial candidate Camilo Escalona obtained a mere 16% of the vote in Santiago West. The Unidad Popular coalition itself experienced political conflicts. In Salvador Allende …the founding (1933) of Chile’s Socialist Party. ], Michelle Bachelet won the second round of the 2014 Chilean presidential election with 62% of the votes. After becoming the President, Aliende took several policy decisions to help the poor and the workers. In 1967, there were 9 seizures, but in 1971, there were 1,278. Chile - Chile - Settlement patterns: Climatic characteristics and historic events have strongly influenced settlement patterns and population distribution in Chile. Salvador Allende was a Chile physician and a politician. The promulgation, in 1948, of the Law 8.987 "Defense of Democracy Law" that banned the communists, was again a factor of division among the socialists. Due to its membership in the Concert of Parties for Democracy, the party has endorsed the candidates of other parties on several occasions. The impact of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia imparted new vigor to Chile's revolutionary movements, which in the 1920s were mostly identified with the global Communist movement; the Communist Party of Chile was formed. He was deported to Chile Chico, condemned and deprived of his civic rights. In the later 1930s they included the "Left Communist" faction, formed by a split of the Communist Party of Chile, headed by Manuel Noble Plaza and comprising the journalist Oscar Waiss, the lawyer Tomás Chadwick and the first secretary of the PS, Ramón Sepúlveda Loyal, among others. The new socialist state only can be born of the initiative and the revolutionary action of the proletariat masses. These ideas took hold in the labour movement at the beginning of the 20th century and, along with them, the various communist, anarchist, socialist, and mutualist ideals of the time were diffused by writers and leaders such as Luis Emilio Recabarren. Eventually anti-socialist elements in the military, with support from US intelligence agencies, orchestrated a successful coup d'état on September 11, 1973, and the leader of the coup, Augusto Pinochet, seized power. [citation needed], In March 1987, Clodomiro Almeyda entered Chile secretly and presented himself before the court to rectify his situation. Popular Unity triumphed in the presidential election of September 1970. Background. The Popular Unity (Spanish: Unidad Popular, UP) was a left-wing political alliance in Chile that stood behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election. -The Capitalist exploitation based on the doctrine of private property regarding land, industry, resource, and transportation, necessarily must be replaced by an economically socialist state in which said private property be transformed into collective. The outcome of the 2005 parliamentary elections was favorable both for the Socialists and for the Concertación: the PS increased its deputies from 12 to 15, and its senators from 5 to 8, giving it the largest block it had ever had in the Senate. He was elected to Congress as a Deputy in 1937, but his rise to political prominence came with his appoint… Leading up to the 1999 presidential elections, the PS, PPD and Radical Social-Democratic Party again supported Lagos as candidate. They prevailed against Camilo Escalona, Clodomiro Almeyda and Jaime Estevez, representing an alliance between the traditional supporters of Clodomiro Almeyda and one faction of Jorge Arrate's "renewal" tendency. His slight plurality in the election resulted in his confirmation as president by the National Congress of Chile. She was the first female president of Chile and was succeeded by Sebastián Piñera in 2010. The Socialist Party's Secretary General, Carlos Altamirano, managed to escape from Chile, appearing in Havana on 1 January 1974, during the anniversary of the Cuban Revolution. In spite of the loss, the unification of the socialist parties had a new leader, and Chile was one of the few countries of the world in which a Marxist had clear possibilities to win the presidency of the Republic through democratic elections. The Communist PartY, founded in 1921, was the sec-ond .largest in the country, The Socialist Party was founded in 1933 by President Salvador Allende, who died in last week's coup. The Great Depression of 1930 plunged the country's working and middle classes into a serious crisis that led them to sympathize with socialist ideas, which found expression in the establishment of the short-lived Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932. He participated in the founding (1933) of Chile’s Socialist Party. The government established peasant councils that were supposed to represent peasant interests. The early settlement by Spaniards occurred in the temperate part of the country, known as the Central Nucleus, or Zona Central, where the agriculture, industry, and main population centres developed. [22] Her government had to confront the world economic crisis of 2008, but her popularity figures recovered as Chileans formed a positive opinion of her leadership, and her final approval rating of 84% had never before been attained by any Chilean head of state on leaving their post.[23]. The youth of the party assumed a very critical attitude toward these changes and mergers, which caused the expulsion of all the Central Committee of the FJS, among them Raúl Vásquez (its secretary general), Raúl Ampuero, Mario Palestro and Carlos Briones. Allende’s election represented a victory for workers and for the working class — the non-elite, popular … Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was born on 26th June 1908 in Chile to Doña Laura Gossens Uribe and Salvador Allende Castro. In 2014, a new party in Chile called Revolución Democrática inaugurated its central office. Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens (Spanish: [salβaˈðoɾ aˈʝende ˈɣosens]; 26 June 1908 – 11 September 1973) was a Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections.. Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. Other victims of repression were the former home Secretary, José Tohá González and the former Minister of National Defense, Orlando Letelier del Solar. The serious economic problems facing the government only deepened the country's political divisions. The withdrawal of the Party of Radical Left from the government, with its 6 representatives and 5 senators, meant that the government of Allende was left with less than one third of both houses of the parliament. 4 in Valparaíso. 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